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KRIMINOLOGI

n      Mengapa Kriminologi Lahir ?
n      Apa Kriminologi itu ?
n      Apa obyek studi Kriminologi ?
n      Mazhab-mazhab Kriminologi
n      Teori-teori Kriminologi
 
MENGAPA KRIMINOLOGI LAHIR ?
n      Ketidakpuasan pada :
      1) Hukum Pidana
      2) Hukum Acara Pidana
      3) Cara Penghukuman
n      Penerapan Statistik

Apa Kriminologi itu ?
n      Ilmu pengetahuan yang bertujuan menyelidiki gejala kejahatan seluas-luasnya (Bonger)
n      The body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon (Sutherland)
n      kumpulan ilmu pengetahuan tentang kejahatan yang bertujuan untuk memperoleh pengetahuan dan pengertian tentang gejala kejahatan dengan jalan mempelajari dan menganalisa secara ilmiah keterangan2, keseragaman2, pola2 dan faktor2 kausal  yg. Berhubungan dg. Kejahatan, Pelaku kejahatan, serta reaksi masyarakat thd. Keduanya (Wolfgang, Savitz, Johnston)

OBYEK STUDI KRIMINOLOGI :
n      Kejahatan
n      Penjahat
n      Reaksi Masyarakat terhadap Kejahatan dan Penjahat


MAZHAB-MAZHAB DALAM KRIMINOLOGI :
n      Klasik
            - Indeterminisme
            - free will
            (Becharia, Bentham)
n      Positif
            - Determinisme
                        - Biologi
                        - Psikologi
                        - Kultural
n      Kriminologi Baru
           
TEORI-TEORI KRIMINOLOGI :
n      Teori-teori  dr. Perspektif Biologi dan Psikologi
n      Teori-teori dr. Perspektif Sosiologi
n      Teori-teori dr. Perspektif lain

TEORI-TEORI DARI PERSPEKTIF BIOLOGI  :
n      C. Lombroso (L’huomoDelinquente - Atavistic Stigmata)
n      Enrico Ferri & Garofalo
n      Charles B.Goring
n      Body Types ( Kretcmer, Hooten, Seldon, Glueck & Glueck)
n      Disfungsi Otak & Learning Disabilities
n      Faktor 2 Genetika
TEORI-TEORI DARI PERSPEKTIF SOSIOLOGIS :
n      Strain Theories (Anomie, Strain)
n      Cultural Deviance Theories ( Social disorganization, differential association, culture conflik)
n      Control Social

ANOMIE THEORI (Emile Durkheim)
n      Struktural functionalist
n      anomie
n      normlessnes
n      sudden economic change

STRAIN THEORY (Robert K.Merton)
n      Cultural goals & legitimate means
n      Disparity between goals & means fosters frustation, which leads to strain
n      Modes of Adaptations (conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion)

DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY :
n      Criminal behavior is learned
n      Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other person in a process of communication
n      The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups
n      When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (a) techniques of commiting the crime; (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, & attitudes
n      The specific direction of motives & drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as fovorable or unfavorable
n      A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitios favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law
n      Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, & intencity
n      The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal & anticriminal patterns involves all mechanism that are involved in any other learning
n      While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values, since noncriminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.

DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY (E. H. Sutherland)
KEJAHATAN ITU DIPELAJARI

SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY :
n      Social Bonds
            1. Attachment
            2. Commitment
            3. Involvement
            4. Belief (Hirchi)
n      Techniques of Netralization (Matza)

THEORI-THEORI PERSPEKTIF LAIN :
n      Labeling
n      Conflict
n      Critical



Sumber Materi :
Kuliah Umum Dr. Setyo Utomo,S.H,M.Hum tanggal 27 Mei 2011 di Kampus STIHPADA Palembang.

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